2009年8月31日 星期一

Yahid and Yahad

在"三一神論"( 中國與福音出版社) 第83 頁如此云: 聖父, 聖子, 聖靈之間的合一, 不是單獨個體冷酷的"一"; 是有溫暖愛情彼此相交的"一". 在希伯來文中的字是yahad, 聖父, 聖子, 聖靈之間的合而為一的"一" 是一個本質的一. 是創造者之間不同位格的合一. 另外一個字是yahid, 是單獨, 冷酷的, 冷冰冰的一, 與人沒有關係的"一", 這個不是三位一體 所用的字; 但在12世紀時被提出來使用,所以從12世紀一直到現在, 這七 ,八百年, 猶太人完全沒有辦法瞭解三位一體. 因為他們被這個字yahid害死, 他們不回到聖經,而用yahid來描寫上帝的獨一, 冷冰冰, 單獨的個體, 沒有愛的一是個"單獨的一", 而不是"相合的一". 但是聖經告訴我們: 以色列啊! 你要聽, 我們的上帝是獨一的上帝. 這個"獨一"是用yahad.. 當聖經告訴我們: 二人成為一體 的時候, 那個"一"是yahad.
在網上有一篇名為The Trinity of God的文章, 該作者如此寫到:
Echad, meaning a compound unity, several composites which make a whole or a combine “I”. We can define this word's usage in passages such as:
Genesis 1:5 : And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first (echad) day.”
Echad is also found in Genesis 2:24 where we read:
Genisis 2:24 : “Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one (echad) flesh.”
Echad is also used of God in Deuteronomy 6:4 and in many other passages that refer to the compound unity of the Godhead. When we compare Echad as used in other passages to Deuteronomy 6:4, we see that God is not an absolute One but a compound unity. This unity is made up of three Persons. Just as Day is made up of evening and morning, and one flesh is made up of man and wife, the Godhead is composed of Father, Son, and Spirit.
上述兩篇文章相同 把yahad (echad) 當為"合一" (compound unity). 到底這個字的意思是甚麼? 讓我們來看看幾本聖經字典:
(1) The New Strong's Concise Dictionary of Bible Words
此字Strong 編號為259(yahad): a numeral from 258; properly united, ex. One; or (as
an ordinal ) first. KJV 譯為 a , alike, alone, altogether, any, anything, apiece, a certain, each one, eleven, every, few, first, highway, a man, once, one, only, other, some, together. 258註釋為:perhaps a primitive root; to unity, ex. (figuratively) collect (one's thoughts).KJV 譯為 go one way or other. 整句譯文為 Ezek 21:16 : Go thee one way or other, either on the right hand, or on the left, whithersoever thy face is set.
(2) The Stongest Strong's Exhoustive Concordance of the Bible
259: (adjective numeral); one; a certain one; first. 此字在KJV中譯為one 681 次, a 60次, first 37 次, another 35 次, other 31次, any 15次, once 11次, certain 9次, each 8次, every 7次, some 7次, an 5次, alone 4次, every one 3次, few 3次, somewhat 3次, only 2次, apiece 1次, at once 1次, each man 1次, man 1次, one manner 1次, one thing 1次, the 1次.
上述兩本字典告訴我們,yahad只是單純的一, 亦可譯為few等等. 列舉幾個例子:
Gen 2:21 : And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept; and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead threof;
亞當的肋骨, 難道是 相合的一 嗎?
Gen 2:24 : Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.
這裡所謂的one flesh, 是可以被分開的.
Da 11:20 : Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.
A few days 是由幾天組成的. 換句話說 , 是由分別不同的一天聯合起來, 而這個 "聯合"是各自可以分為一天的.
這些"聯合的一", 不像主張三位一體的人所說的, 即三個位格在本質上是不能被分割的.
(3) 聖經原文字典
其字義為一, 一樣, 一個, 第一, 單一, 一致的. 和合本譯為一654次, 每42次, 這23次, 一隻21次, 一個20次, 那13次, 一樣11次, 各10次, 同10次, 初一5次, 元5次, 一個人5次, 第一個2次, 第一行2次 別2次, 共2次, 一塊2次, 一棵2次, 一件2次, 頭一1次, 獨一1次, 斉1次, 盡1次, 幾1次, 這個人1次, 這個1次, 第一道1次, 第一1次, 特1次, 個1次, 相同1次, 長1次, 孤單1次, 孤身1次, 些1次, 立1次, 正1次, 一條1次, 一位1次, 總共是855次.
(4) 聖經原文串珠註解
此字編號為0023, 字義頭一. ' 頭一' ( 創1:5); 原文字義是數字之一 ,每一, 唯一, 第一, 一次等意思. 七十士譯本將Hebrew 0259 多譯成Greek 1520..Hebrew 0259 在七十士譯本以Greek 1520表達. Greek 1520 在新約中譯為一(太5:18); 七十士譯本與新約中此字強調用法是' 同一個'. 例 : 創11:1 的 "都是一樣", 利22:28的"同日", 路12:52的"一家", 羅15:6的"一口"等.
(5) New International of Old Testament Theology & Exegesis (Volume 1)
此字GK編號為285. 其意為 (ehad), construct (ahad), adjective one (cardinal number),first (ordinal number), each, a certain, only, once, first, a few. 其意大致上可以分為六種:
(I) Joshua 12:9 : the king of Jerico one; the king of Ai (near Bethel) one;
12:10 : the king of Jerusalem one; the king of Hebron one;
12:11 : the king of Jarmuth one; the king of Lachish one;
12:12 : the king of Eglon one; the king of Gezer one;
12:13 : the king of Debir one; the king of Geder one;
12:14 : the king of Hormah one; the king of Arad one;
12:15 : the king of Libnah one; the king of Adullam one;
12:16 : the king of Makkedah one; the king of Bethel one;
12:17 : the king of Tappuah one; the king of Hepher one;
12:18 : the king of Aphek one; the king of Lasharon one;
12:19 : the king of Madon one; the king of Hazor one;
12:20 : the king of Shimron Meron one; the king of Acshaph one;
12:21 : the king of Taanach one; the king of Megiddo one;
12:22 : the king of Kedesh one; the king of Jokneam in Carmel  
one;
12:23 : the king of Dor (in Naphoth Dor) one, the king of Goyim in
Gilgal one;
12:24 : the king of Tirzah one; thirty one kings in all
上述所列出的每一個王, 全被約書亞和以色列人所擊殺. 這每一個王 , 難道是Compound unity 的人嗎? 或許有人說, 這些王不是全都由靈, 魂, 體組成. 這不是compound unity 嗎? 讓我們看看下列經文:
創3:19 : 你必汗流滿面才得餬口, 直到你歸了土. 因為你是從土而出的; 你本是塵土, 仍要歸塵土.
伯34:19 : 他若專心為己, 將靈(GK8120)和氣收歸自己.
箴 23:14 : 你要用杖打他, 就可以救他的靈魂(原文作魂soul, GK5883), 免下地獄.
太10:28 : 那殺身體的,不能殺靈魂(原文作魂, soul, GK6034)的, 不要怕他們. 惟有能把身體和靈魂(同上)都滅在地獄裏的, 正要怕他.
彼一1:9 : 並且得這著你們的信心的果效, 就是靈魂, (原文作魂,soul, GK6034)的救恩.
此處我們得知人死後, 身體歸回土, 靈被神收去, 魂則下地獄或上天堂. 這也就是說, 一個人死後, 靈, 魂, 體是可以分開的, 並不是永遠的合一 .
(II) Gen 1:5 : And there was evening, and there was morning-the first day.
Gen 8:13 : By the first day of the first month of Noah's six hundred and first year, the water
had dried up from the earth.
Exod 40:17 : So the tabernacle was set up on the first day of the first month in the secon year.
2 Chron 29:17 : They began the consecration on the first day of the first month, and by the eighth day of the month they reached the portico of the Lord.
此處的yahad是指第一(the first), 而非compound unity. "第一"和"相合的一"畢竟不同. 但主張三位一體的人硬把第一說成compound unity.
(III) 2 Kgs 3:11 An officer of the king of Israel answered, “Elisha son of Shaphat
is here. He used to pour water on the hands of Elija.
2 Kgs 6:12 : “None of us, my lord the king,” said one of his officers,” said one of his offices, “ but Elisha, the prophet who is in Israel, tells the king of Israel the very words you speek in you bedroom.”
2 Kgs 4:22 : “Please send me one of the servants and a donkey so I can go to the man of God quickly and return.”
Isa 51:2 : look to Abraham your father, and to Sarah, who gave you birth . When I called him he was but one, and I bless him and made him many.
Josh 23:10 : One of you rout a thousand because the Lord your God fights for you, just as he promised.
1 Kgs 8:56 : Not one word has failed of all the good promises he gave through his servant Moses.
Isa 4:1 : In that day seven women will take hold of one man and say, “We will eat our own food and provide our own clothes; only let us be called by your name, Take away our disgrace!
Ps 14:3 : All have turned aside, they have together become corrupt; there is no one who dose good, not even one
Ps 14:3 : All have turned aside, they have together become corrupt, there is no one who does good, not even one.
Eccl 7:28 : while I was still searching but not finding – I found one upright man among a thousand, but not one upright woman among them all.
從上述經文, 可知所謂的"一",只是單純的"一" 並沒有所謂的
"相合的一".
( IV ) Gen 44:27-28 : “Your servant my father said to us, 'You know that my wife
bore me two sons. One of them went away from me', and I said, ' he has surely been torn to pieces'. And I have not seen him since.
Deut 21:15 : If a man has two wifes, and he loves one but not the other, and both bear him sons but firstborn is the son of the wife he does not love,
Zec 8:21 : and the inhabitants of one city will go to another and say, “ Let us go at once to entreat the Lord and seek the Lord Almight. I myself am going.”
Gen 2:24 : For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his
wife, and they will become one flesh.
Gen 11:1 Now the whole world had one language and a common speech.
Gen 11:6 : The Lord said, “If as one people speaking the same language they have began to do this, then nothing they plan to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them.
Exdo 24:3 : When Moses went and told the people all the Lord's words and laws, they responded with one voice, “Everything the Lord has said we will do.
Judg 20:1 : Then all the Israelites from Dan to Beersheba and from the land of Gilead came out as one man and assembled before the Lord in Mizpah
Ezra 3:1 : When the seventh month came and the Israeslites had settled in their towns, the people assembled as one man in Jerusalem.
Exdo 12:49 : The same law applies to the native-born and to the alien living among you.
2 Sam 12:1 : The Lord sent Nathan to David. When he came to him, he said, “ There were two men in a certain town, one rich and the other poor.
Judg 21:3 : “O Lord, the God of Israel,” they cried, “why has this happened to Israel? Why should one tribe be missing from Israel today?”
1 Kgs 11:13 : Yet I will not tear the whole kingdom from him, but will give him one for the sake of David my servant and for the sake of Jerusalem, which I have chosen.
Hos 1:11 : The people of Judah and the people of Israel will be reunited, and they will appoint one leader and will come up out of the land, for great will be the day of Zezreel.
Ezek 34:23 : I will place over them one shepherd, my servant David, and he will tend them; he will then tend them and be their sheperd.
Ezek 11:19 : I will give them an undivided heart and put a new spirit in them; I will remove from them their heart of sone and give them a heart of flesh.
上面經文的yahad都有一共同點, 即描寫多人, 其他事物或東西中的"一". 既然是在多數裡面的"一", 又怎會是"相合的一"呢? 讓我們再看回上述的經文, 留意下列句中的情形:
Gen 44:27-28 : one of them
Zech 8:21 : inhabitants of one city
Gen 11:6 : one people speaking the same language they have began to do this,
2 Sam 12:1 : two man ia a certain town, one rich and other poor
Judg 21:3 : one tribe be missing from Israel
Hos 1:11 : and they will appoint one
Ezek 34:23 : place over them one shepherd
Ezek 11:19 : give them an undivided heart.........their heart
Deut 21:15 : he loves one but not the other
Gen 2:24 : they will become one flesh
Gen 11:1 : one language and a common speech
Exdo 24:3 : they responded with one voice
Ezra 3:1 : the people assembled as one man
Judg 20:1 : All Israelites ......came out as one man
Exdo 12:49 : The same law applies.......among you
1 Kgs 11:13 : not tear the whole kingdom ...., but give him one tribe
很明顯的, 這個"一"是多數中的"一", 而非多數" 位格" 合起來的"一 體".
(V) Eccl 4:9 : Two are better than one because they have a good return for their work.
Eccl 4:10 : If one falls down, his friend can help him. But pity the man who falls and has no one to help him up!
Eccl 4:11 : Also, if two lie down together, they will keep warm. But how can one keep warm alone?
Job 31:15 : Did not he who made me in the womb make them? Did not the same one form us both within our mothers?
以上經文都有一相同之處, 即二者中的一個"一", 並非 "相合的一".
(VI) Deut 6:4 : Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one.
在the Apostolic Bible Polyglot 舊約第266頁及新約第72的句子和Strong 編號如下:
Deut 6:4 : Hear(191), O Israel(3588)! The Lord(2962) our God(2316-1473) is(1510.2.3) one(1520) Lord(2962).
Mark 12:29 : O(3588) And(1161) Jesus answered(611) to him(1473) that(3754); Foremost(4413) of all(3956) of(3588) the commandments(1785), Hear(191), O Israel(3588)! The Lord(2962) our God(2316-1473) is(1510.2.3) one(1520) Lord(2962).
此處我們看到舊約和新約的"一"字, 都是同樣的, 即S1520, 相當於GK1651. 參考Complete Expository Dictionary of Old & New Testament Words, 希臘文為heis, 其註解如下:
heis is the cardinal number “one”. It can be used simply to count items. It may also be used as the last part of a complex number, like the “forty lashes minus one” that Paul received (2 Cor. 11:24). heir is occasionally also used like an ordinal number, as in “the first woe” (Rev. 9:12) and the common NT phrase “on the first day of the week”(Lk. 24:1; Jn. 20:1; Act 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:2).
heis is also used to indicate the singularity of something, thus emphasizing that there is but only one. Paul explains that only one runner receives a prize(1 Cor. 9:24) and that the law can be summed up with only one statement (Gal. 5:14). Jesus criticizes the Pharisees for going to great lengths to gain one singer convert (Mt. 23:15). He condemns a person who breaks even one of the smallest commandments(Mt. 5:19). It was through only one man (Rom.5:12,16,17) and because of only one sin (5:18) that condemnation befell humanity. Yet Christ was the one --- and the only one --- who died for all (2 Cor. 5:14); He was the one man through whom many become righteous (Rom. 5:15, 19). According to Paul, a qualification of an elder is that he must be “the husband of one wife” (Tit. 1:6). John uses heis symbolically to depict the rapidity of Babylon's fall: “in only one day” she is overtaken with plagues (Rev. 18:8), andd “in only one hour” she faces judgment and ruin (Rev. 18:10, 19).
Many of the NT uses of heis refer to the singularity of God --- “one God” (Rom. 3:30; 1 Cor. 8:4, 6; Gal. 3:20; Eph. 4:6; 1 Tim. 2:5). Many other uses explain the unity of the body of Christ. Paul reminds his readers that they, as participants of the Christian church, one members of “one body” (Rom. 12:4, 5; 1 Cor. 10:17; 12:12-20; Gal. 3:23; Col. 3:5; cf. Jn. 17:21-23), and he thus encourages them to be “one in spirit” (Phil. 1:27; 2:2). In the church there is only “one” hope, Lord, faith, and baptism (Eph 4:4-6). A similar unity results when a man and a woman join in marriage to become “one flesh” (1 Cor. 6:16; Eph 5:31).
heis can be used less like a numerical indicator and more like an indefinite pronoun or indefinite article. For example, Matthew uses heis to describe “a (certain) scribe” (Mt. 8:19) and “a man” (Mt. 19:16). heis may also describe “each person” (Col. 4:6), “each one of you” (Eph. 5:33), “each of them” (Acts 21:26), or “anything” (Jn. 1:3).
The Analitical Lexicon to the Greek New Testament 對GK1651 的解釋如下::
numeral one, Matt 10:29; only, Mark12:6; one virtually by union, Matt 19:5,6; John 10:30; one and the same, Luke 12:52; Rom 3:30; one in respect of office and standing, 1Cor 3:8; a certain one, Matt 8:19; 16:14; a. am. Matt 21:19; James 4:13; each one, everyone, Luke 4:40; Act 2:3; one another, 1 Thess 5:11; the one and the other, Matt 20:21; one by one, one after another, in succession, Mark 14:19; John 8:9; as an ordinal, first, Matt 28:1.4.
兩者解釋都一樣, 即單純的"一". 從GK1651/S1520的用法, 可看得更清楚.
(經文引自NIV, Concordance 則摘自The Apostolic Bible Polyglot --- 英譯七十士譯本). 由於此字(S1520/GK1651)在聖經用得很多,故只選"申命記"和"馬可福音"兩本書.
Dt 1:3 : In the fortieth year, on the first day of the eleventh month, Moses proclaimed to the Israelites all that the Lord had commanded him concerning them.
Dt 1:23 : The idea seemed good to me; so I selected twelve of you, one man from each tribe.
Dt 4:42 : to which anyone who had killed a person could flee if he had unintentionally killed his neighbor without malice aforethought. He could flee into one of these cities and save his life.
Dt 6:4 : Hear, O Israel : The Lord our God, the Lord is one.
Dt 12:14 : Offer them only at the place the Lord will choose in one of your tribes, and there observe everything I command you.
Dt 13:12 : If you hear it said about one of the towns the Lord your God is giving you to live in
Dt 15:7 : If there is a poor man among your brothers in any of the towns of the land that the Lord your God is giving you, do not be hardhearted or tighfisted toward your poor brother.
Dt 17:2 : If a man or woman living among you in one of the towns the Lord gives you is found evil in the eyes of the Lord your God in violation of his covenant,
Dt 17:6 : On the testimony of two or three witnesses a man shall be put to death, but none shall be put to death on the testimony of only one withness
Dt 18:6 : If a Levite moves from one of your towns anywhere in Israel where he is living, and comes in all earnestness to the place the Lord will choose,
Dt 19:5 : For instance, a man may go into the forest with his neigbor to cut wood, and as he swings his ax to fell a tree, the head may fly off and hit his neighbor and kill him. That man may flee to one of these cities and save his life.
Dt 19:11 : But if a man hates his neighbor and lies in wait for him, assaults and kills him, and then flees to one of these cities,
Dt 19:15 : One witness is not enough to convict a man accused of any crime or offence he may have committed. A matter must be establised by the testimony of two or three witnesses.
Dt 21:15 : If a man has two wives, and his loves one but not the other, and both bear him sons but the firstborn is the son of the wife he does not love,
Dt 24:5 : If a man has recently married, he must not be sent to war or have any other duty laid on him. For one year he is to be free to stay at home and bring happiness to the wife he has married.
Dt 25:5 : If brothers are living together and one of them dies without a son, his widow must not marry outside the family. Her husband's brother shall take her and marry her and fulfill the duty of a brother-in-law to her
Dt 25:9 : the brother's widow shall go up to him in the presence of the elders, take off one of his sandals, spit in his face and say, “This is what is done to the man who will not build up his brother's family line.
Dt 25:11 If two man are fighting and the wife of one of them comes to rescue her husband from his assailant, and she reaches out and seizes him by his private parts,
Dt 28:7 : The Lord will grant that the enemies who rise up against you will be defeated before you. They will come at you from one direction but flee from them in seven,
Dt 28:55 : and he will not give to one of them any of the flesh of his children that he is eating. It will be all he has left because of the suffering your enemy will inflict on you during the siege of all your cities.
Dt 32:30 : How could one man chase a thousand, or two put ten thousand to flight, unless their Rock had sold them, unless the Lord had given them up?
Mk 2:7 : Why does this fellow talk like that? He's blaspheming! Who can forgive sins
but God alone?
Mk 4:8 : And other fell into the good earth, and gave fruit ascending and growing, and one bore thirty, and one sixty, and one a hundred.  
Mk 4:20 : Others, like seed sown on good soil, hear the word, accept it, and produce a crop --- thirty, sicty or even a hundred times what was sown. 
Mk 5:22 : Then one of the synagogue rulers, named Jairus, came there. Seeing Jesus, he fell at his feet
Mk 6:15 : Others said, “He is Elijah.” And still others claimed, “He is a prophet, like one of the prophets of long ago.
Mk 8:14 : The disciples had forgetten to bring bread, except for one loaf they had with
them in the boat.
Mk 8:28 : They replied, “Some say John the Baptist; others said Elijah; and still others,
one of the prophets.”
Mk 9:5 : Peter said to Jesus, “Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let us put up three shelters --- one for you, one for Moses and one for Elijah.”.
Mk 9:17 : A man in the crowd answered, “Teacher, I brought you my son, who is possessed by a spirit that has robbed him of speech.
Mk 9:37 : Whoever welcomes one of these little children in my name welcomes me; and whoever welcomes me does not welcome me but the one who sent me.”
Mk 9:42 : And if anyone causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him to be thrown into the sea with a large millstone tied around his neck.
Mk 10:8 : and the two become one flesh. So they are no longer two, but one.
Mk 10:17 : As Jesus started on his way, a man ran up to him and fell on his knees before him. “Good teacher, “ he asked, “what must I do to inherit eternal life?
Mk 10:18 : “Why do you call me good? “ Jesus answered. “No one is good --- except God alone.
Mk 10:21 Jesus looked at him and loved him “One thing you lake,” he said, “Go, sell everthing you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven. Then come, follow me.”
Mk 10:37 : They replied, “Let one of us sit at your right and the other at your left in your glory.”
Mk 11:29 : Jesus replied, “I will ask you one question. Answer me, and I will tell you by what authority I am doing these thing.
Mk 12:6 : “He had one left to send, a son, whom he loved. He sent him last of all, saying, “They will respect my son.”
Mk 12:28 : One of the teachers of the law came and heard them debating.: Noticing that Jesus had given them a good answer, he asked him, “Of all the commandments, which is the most important?”
Mk 12:29 : “The most important one,” answered Jesus, “is this: “hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one.
Mk 12:32 : “Well said, teacher,”the man replied. “You are right in saying that God is one and there is no other but him.
Mk 12:42 But a poor widow came and put in two very small coppper coins, worth only a fraction of a penny.
Mk 13:1 As he was leaving the temple, one of his disciples said to him, “Look, Teacher! What massive stone! What magnificent building!”
Mk 14:10 : Then Judas Iscariot, one of the Twelve, went to the chief priests to betray
Jesus to them.
Mk 14:18 While they were reclining at the table eating, he said, “:I tell you the truth, one of you will betray me --- one who is eating with me.”
Mk 14:19 : They were saddened, and one by one they said to him, “Surely not I?”
Mk 14:20 : “It is one of the Twelve, “ he replied, “one who dips bread into the bowl with me.
Mk 14:37 : Then he returned to his disciples amd found them sleeping, “Simon, “ he said to Peter, “are you asleep? Could you not keep watch for one hour?
Mk 14:43 : Just as he was speaking, Judas, one of the Twelve, appeared. With him was a crowd armed with swords and clubs, sent from the chief priests, the teachers of the law, and the elders.
Mk 14:47 : The one of them standing near drew his sword and struck the servant of the high priest, cutting off his ear.
Mk 14:51 : And one certain young man follows him, having put on a fine linen garment upoun his naked body, and the young man seized him.
Mk 14:66 : While Peter was below in the courtyard, one of the servant girls of the high priset came by.
Mk 15:6 : Now it was the custom at the Feast to release a prisoner whom the people requested
Mk 15:27 : They crucified two robbers with him, one on his right and one on his left.
Mk 15:36 : And one having run and filled the sponge with vinegar, and having put it on also a reed, gave him to drink, saying, Allow it! We should see if Elizah comes to lower him.
Mk 16:2 : Very early on the frist day of the week, just after sunrise, they were on their way to the tomb.
現在讓我們來看看yahid這個字的意義. 其Strong編號為3173, Gk編號為3495..
(I) The Complete Word Study Dictionary Old Testament
An adjective meaning sole, only, solitary. This word is frequently used to refer to an only child. Isaacc was Abraham's only son by Sarah (Gen 22:2, 12, 16). Jepthah's daughter was his only child, who came running out to greet him after his vow to sacrifice first thing to come out of his door (Judg. 11:34). The father of an only child began teaching him wisdom when he was very young (Prov 4:3). Mourning an only child was considered an especially grievous sorrow (Jer. 6:26, Amos 8:10, Zech 12:10). The feminine form is used parallel to life or soul, portraying the precious, only life we are given (Ps22:20,21; 35:17). It is also used to mean lonely or alone (Ps 25:16; 68:6,7).
(II) 聖經原文字典
獨一的, 孤獨的. 和合本譯為獨身的3次, 獨身子3次, 孤獨2次, 獨一的1次, 生
命1次; 總供10次.
(III) Hebrew Greek Key Study Bible
Yahiyd : from Yahad (GK3480), together, only, a lone, forsaken. Denotes an only child (Jdg 11:34; Jer 6:26; Am 8:10; Zec 12:10) or one esepecially beloved (Gen 22:2,12,16). . The Septuagint does not tender yahiyd in Genesis 22 with the Greek word monogenes (GK3666), one and only, but with agapetos (GK28), dearly loved likely because Isaac had a half-brother (Ishmael). In reference to Jephthah's daughter, however, the Septuagint does use the word monogenes (Judg 11:34). Yahiyd also means solitary or isolated (Pr 4:3).
(IV) The New Strong's Concise Dictionary of Bible Words
Properly united, i.e, sole; by implied beloved; also lonely; (feminine) the life(as
not to be replaced). KJV譯為darling, desolate, only (child, son), solitary.
(V) New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology & Exegesis (Volume 2)
Adjective only one, abandoned. The adjective appers 11x. It is related to 'ehad, one, and yahad, together. Yahid signifies “only(one)” in Gen 22:2, 12, 16; Judg 11:34. The expression in mourning as for an onely son (Jer 6:26; Amos 8:10; Zech 12:10) relates death and the end of the family line, therfore the death of the son signifies a terrrible catastropice (compare Jer 31:15). The meaning desolate or abandoned is foud in Ps 25:16; 68:6, 7. In 25:16, the psalmist laments that he iss “lonely (yahid) and afficted (an I).. Having been abandoned by his friends, he puts his hope in the Lord. The confirmation of this hope finds expression in 68:6,7, according to which the abandoned and lonely people will enjoy the relationship within the family, whereas the wicked will experience abandonment “in a sun-scorched land”.
(VI) The Strongest Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of The Bible
only son, only child (special and unique to the parents); precious life; alone, solitary. KJV譯為only 7次, darling 2次, child 1次, solitary 1次.
(V) The Strongest NIV Exhaustive Concordance
Only son, only child (special and unique to the parents); precious life; alone, solitary.
在NIV 中譯為only son 5次, only child 3次, longly 2次, precious life 2次.
(VI) 聖經原文串珠註解
其編號為0501. 其意為獨生的, 譯為獨生的(創22:2); 形容詞, 有譯為獨一的(箴4:3); 孤獨的(詩68:6);  孤獨(詩25:16);  獨生子(耶6:26, 摩8:10; 亞12:10); 生命(詩22:20; 35:17).
在七十世譯本之Codex Vaticanus 中. S3173/GK3495 以希臘文S3439/GK3666 來代替.
The Complete Word Study Dictionary – New Testament, 其對S3439/GK3666的解釋如下:
genitice monogenous , masculine feminine, neuter monogenon, from monos (S3431), only, and genos (S1085), stock. Unique, one of kind, one and only. The only one of the family (Luke 7:23 referring to the only son of his mother; 8:42, the daughter of Jairus; Luke 9:38, the demoniac boy). John also uses monogenes to describe the relation of Jesus to God the Fatheer, presenting Him as the unique one, the only one (monos) of a class or kind (genos), in the discussion of the relationship of the Son to the Father (John 1:14, 18; 3:16, 18: 1 John 4:9).
在舊約Masoretic 之 The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgarteusia 中 ,S3173/GK3495 與七十士譯本之Codex Vaticanus S3439/GK3666 有所出入 .七十士譯本之S3439在舊約中出現4次, 即Jdg 11:34, Ps 22:20, 25:16, 35:17. Masoretic 之S3173/GK3495 則出現12次 . 在七十士譯本中, 新舊約皆用S3439(等同GK3666). 茲將兩者合一以觀其用法:
Gen 22:2 : Then God said, “Take your son, your only son(S3173/GK3495), whom you love,
and go to the region of Moriah. Sacrifice him here as a burnt offering on one of the mountains I will tell you about..
Gen 22:12 : “Do not lay a hand on the boy,” he said, “Do not do anything to him. Now I know that you fear God, because you have not withheld from me your son, your only son(S3173/GK3495).
Gen 22:16 : and said, “I swear by myself, declares the Lord, that because you have done this and have not withheld your son, your only son(S3173/GK3495).
Jdg 11:34 : When Jephthah returned to his home in Mizpah, who should come out to meet him but his daughter, dancing to the sound of tambourines! She was an only child(S3173/GK3495). Except for her he had neither son nor daughter.
Ps 22:20 : Deliver my life from the sword, my precious life(S3173/GK3495) from the power of the dogs.
Ps 25:16 : Turn to me and be gracious to me, for I am lonely(S3173/GK3495) and afflicated.
Ps 35:17 : O Lord, how long will you look on? Rescue my life from their ravages, my precious life(S3173/GK3495) from this lions.
Ps 68:6 : God sets the lonely(S3173/GK3495) in families, he leads forth the prisoners with singing; but the rebellious live in a sun-scorched land.
Pr 4:3 : When I was a a boy in my father's house, still tender, and an only child (S3173/GK3495), of my mother,
Jer 6:26 : O my people, put on sackcloth and roll in ashes; mourn with bitter wailing as for an only son(S3173/GK3495) for suddenly the destroyer will come upon us.
Am 8:10 : I will turn your religious feasts into mourning and all your singing into weeping. I will make all of you wear sackcloth and shave your heads. I will make that time like mourning for an only son(S3173/GK3495) and the end of it like a bitter day.
Zec 12:10 : And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and supplication. They will look on me, the one they have pierced, and they will mourn for him as one mouns for an only child(S3173/GK3495),.
Lk 7:12 : As he approached the town gate, a dead person was being carried out --- the only (S3439/GK3666) son of his mother, and she was a widow. And a large crowd from the town was with her.
Lk 8:42 : because his only(S3439/GK3666) daughter, a girl of about twelve, was dying. As Jesus was on his way, the crowds almost crushed him.
Lk 9:38 : A man in the crowd called out, “Teacher, I beg you to look at my son, for he is my only(S3439/GK3666) child.
Jn 1:14 : The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the One and Only(S3439/GK3666) who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.
Jn 1:18 : No one has ever seen God, but God the One and Only(S3439/GK3666), who is at the Father's side, has made him known.
Jn 3:16 : For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only(S3439/GK3666) Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.
Jn 3:18 : Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe stands condemned already because he has not believed in the name of God's one and only(S3439/GK3666) Son.
Heb 11:17 : By faith Abraham, when God tested him, offered Isaac as a sacrifice. He who had received the promises was about to sacrifice his one and only(S3439/GK3666) son
1 Jn 4:9 : This is how God showed his love among us: He sent his one and only (S3439/GK3666) Son into the world that we might live through him.
總的來說, yahad 只是單純的”one”, 而yahid 卻是”only” 而已. 這個only, 通常帶有珍貴, 憐憫或愛的成份. 讓我們重看上述的例子:
Gen 22:2 : your only son --- 指亞伯拉罕所愛的以撒.
Gen 22:12 : only son --- 指亞伯拉罕所鐘愛的以撒.
Gen 22:16 : only son --- 也是指以撒.
Jdg 11:34 : only child --- 指Jephthah所喜愛的女兒.
Ps 22:20 : precious life --- 指珍貴的生命.
Ps 25:16 : 因lonely 而向神求gracious.
Ps 32:17 : precious life 指珍貴的生命.
Ps 68:6 : 神使lonely的有家, 被囚的singing.
Pr 4:3 : only child of my mother, 即母親獨一的愛子.
Jer 6:26 : mourn your only son --- 為愛子痛哭.
Am 8:10 : mourning for an only son --- 為愛子哭號.
Zec 12:10 : the only child --- 指耶穌, 神的愛子.
Lk 7:12 : 主憐憫喪子而哭的寡婦.
Lk 8:42 : 睚魯所愛的獨生女.
Lk 9:38 : 求主看顧愛子.
Jn 1:14 : 從天父來的獨生子, 即耶穌.
Jn 1:18 : 在父懷裡的獨生子, 即耶穌.
Jn 3:16 : one and only son --- 指耶穌.
Jn 3:18 : 父的獨生子, 即耶穌.
Heb 11:17 : 亞伯拉罕獻上他所愛的兒子.
1 Jn 4:9 : He sent his one and only son --- 即耶穌.
Yahid在聖經中, 從來沒有指神或天父, 其他事物或東西; 只是描寫人而已, 包括道成肉身的耶穌. 每次指耶穌時, 都說他是獨身子, 人子或子. 這個only的描寫,是含有珍貴, 憐憫或愛的成份. 相反的, yahad是指"一". 可以指神, 人, 東西, 事物等等, 且描寫的東西是可以分開的. 這已與三位一體的定義相違 : 三位一體是由三個合一的位格所合成. 這些位格不是分離的存在 (seperate existence), 而是完全合一的, 作為一位神. 但按神的本性而言, 三位一體是三個獨立存在 --- 父, 子及聖靈(慕迪神學手冊第191和192頁).  第193頁又說不是有三個一起存在或分開的個體, 而是在一個神聖之內, 有位格上的自我區分. 第193頁接著說, 三位都擁有神性屬性的總和, 而神在本質上沒有被分割.
. Yahid不是 "相合的一", 而是only, 更談不上是 沒有愛的單獨的一 (三一神論第83頁)..Yahad 則是one. 兩者根本是不同意義,怎麼說是猶太人被這個字yahid 害死呢?.

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