主張三位一體的人, 都以elohiym(Strong号碼為430)乃ellah (Strong 号碼為433)的復數,
進而解釋elohiym乃暗指神的三個位格. 此說法是否可取, 只要我們看看其字義即可知道:
在聖經原文舊約希伯來字典(浸宣出版社) 第26頁註明其字義為神或諸神. 此字在和合本譯為神2512次, 神像11次, 審判官3, 神明2次, 主2次, 審判1次, 像1次, 尊大的1次 , 虔誠1次, 甚大的1次, 天使1次, 女神1次, 士師1次, 總數為2538次.
聖經原文串珠註解( 浸宣出版社) 第1和第2頁解釋得很清楚::
“神"創1:1; 原文字義是’大能者; 起誓約束自己者’. 在不同的上下文中,也譯成'尊
大'( 創'23:6); '大大' '甚大' (創30:8; 撒上14:15); '天使'(詩8:5), 各1次, 其餘250次均譯成神. HB 0430 在七十士譯本以 2316 表達. GK 2316 在新約中譯為'神'太1:23; 在舊約開始說明神是創造宇宙萬有及人類的神, 在新約第一章開始重新敘述'神要與我們同在'.
The New Strong's Concise Dictionary of Bible Words (Thomas Nelson Publishers)之English Index to the biblical language 對elohiym的解釋為God; gods; great ones(第13頁). 同一本書之New Strong's Concise Dictionary of the Words in the Hebrew Bible 作如下解釋:
Plural of 433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural, thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates, and sometimes as a superlative: -angels, excedingly God (gods) (-dess), (very) great, judges, mighty.
在The Hebrews-Greek (AMG Publishers) 之Lexical Aids to the Old Testament Goodrick-Kohlenberger numbering system, 其號碼為466(第1504頁), 其解釋為God; god. The most common Hebrews word translated 'God' in the OT. Occasionally with modifiers such as righteous (Ps7:9), living (1Sa17.26), holy(Jos24:19), and true (2 Ch 15:3). Plural in form, but has both singular and plural uses. Usually takes a singular verb, so no implication of any plurality in the divine nature can be infexed from the fact that the word is plural. When used as a plural, it can refer to rulers of judges with divine autority (Ex21:6), pagan gods (Ex 18:11; Ps86:8), and angels (Ps8:5). In the singular it can denote a god or a goddes (1Sa 5:7; 2Ki18:33) and a man representing God (Ex7:1), God (Dt7:9; Ezr 1:3; Isa45:18)
同一本書之Concise Dictionary of The Hebrews 第1905頁如此說: God (pl of majesty); gods; mighty one, great one; judge; (same as Strong number 430).
在the Strongest Strong Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible之Hebres-Aramaic Dictionary -Index to the OT (第1360頁)解釋如下:
God (plural of majesty: plural in form but singular in meaning, with a focus on great power);
gods (true grammatical plural); any person characterized by greatness or power; mighty one, great one, judge.
伊羅興雖然是復數, 但也可以作是單數來解釋, 意即'最高的神' (英文譯作'God', '神').文法上來說, 伊羅興像英文的God字一樣, 是個普通名詞. 所表達的是關呼神的一切觀念跟人(民23:19)和其他受造之物為對比. 用伊羅興來形容宇宙性或普世性的關係, 是適切(創 1:1), 因為只有一位至高的真神, 而他是有位格的. 依羅興在性質上接近專有名詞, 但沒失去他抽象和概念方面的特質.
在 The Complete Words Study Dictionary Old Testament (AMG Publisher)第54頁提到三位一體, 但聲明其意思只是間接提到而已. 茲將其註釋抄錄如下:
A masculine plural noun meaning God, gods, judges, angels.Occuring more than 2600 times in Old Testament, this word commonly designates the One True God (Gen1:1) and is often paired with God's unique name Yehowah (3068)(Gen 2:4; Ps100:3). When the word is used as the generic designation of God, it convey in Scripture that God is the Creator (Gen5:1); the King (Ps47:7); the Judge (Ps 50:6); the Lord (Ps86:12); and the Savior (Hos13:4). His character is compassionate(Deut4:13); gracious (Ps116:5); and faithfully to His covenant (Deut 7:9).In fewer instances, this word refer to foreign gods, such as Dagon(1Sam 5:7) or Baal(1Kgs18:24). It also might refer to judges (Es22:8; 9) or angels as gods (Ps97:7). Although the form of this word is plural, it is frequently used as if it was singular, that is, with a singular word (Gen1:1-31; Ex2:24). The plural form of this word may be regarded (1) as intensive to indicate God's fullness of power; (2) as majestic to indicate God's kingly rule; (3) as an allusion of the trinity (Gen1:26). The singular form of the word eloah (433) occurs only in poetry(Ps50:22; Isa44:8). The shortenend form of the word is el(410).
在聖經中, 包括上述主張三位一體的Comlete Word Study Dictionary Old Testament, 都提到elohiym 其中的意思為plural of majestic 的神(God), 外邦人的神(god)和諸神或多神(gods); 絶對沒含有多位的意思. 主張三位一體的人, 先有三位一體的概念, 然後才來找聖經章節來支持之. 就算Elohiym 是多位而非多神, 也未必是多位位格. 因為如果是多位的話, 可以多位其他東西!
所謂的神(god) 或多神(gods), 我們可以從其原文用法(430) 可得知(經文全引自KJV):
Gen 3:5 For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be openend, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.
Gen 31:32 With whomsoever thou findest the gods, let him not live: before our brethren discern thou what is thine with me, and that Rachel had stolen them.
Gen 35:2 Then Jacob said unto his household, and to all that were with him, Put away the strange gods that are among you, and be clean, and change your garments.
Gen 35:4 And they gave unto Jacob all the strange gods which were in their hand, and all their earrings which were in their ears; and Jacob hid them under the oak which was by She'-chem.
Ex7:1 And the Lord said unto Moses, See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh : and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet.
Ex12:12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.
Ex 18:11 Now I know that the LORD is greater than all gods : for in the thing wherein they dealt proudly he was above them.
Ex 20:3 Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
Ex 20:23 Ye shall not make with me gods of silver, neither shall ye make unto you gods of gold.
Ex 22:20 He that sacrificeth unto any god, save unto the LORD only, he shall be utterly destroyed.
Ex 22:28 Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people.
Ex 23:13 And in all things that I have said unto you be circumspect : and make no mention of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard out of thy month.
Ex 23:24 Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do after their works : but thou shalt utterly overthrow them, and quite break down their images.
Ex 23:32 Thou shalt make no covenent with them, nor with their gods.
Ex 23:33 They shall not dwell in thy land, lest they make thee sin against me : for if thou serve their gods, it will surely be a snare unto thee.
Ex 32:1 And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down out of the mount, the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron, and said unto him, Up, make us gods, which shall go before us; for us for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him.
Ex32:4 And he received them at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf: and they said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.
Ex32:8 They have turned aside quickly out of the way which I commanded them: they have made them a molten calf, and have worshipped it, and have sacrificed thereunto, and said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which have brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.
Ex 32:23 For they said unto me, Make us gods, which shall go before us: for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him.
Ex 32:31 And Moses returned unto the LORD, and said, Oh, this people have sinned a great sin, and have made them gods of gold.
Ex 34:15 Lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, and they go a whoring after their gods, and do sacrifice unto their gods, and one call thee, and thou eat of his sacrifice;
Ex 34:16 And thou take of their daughters unto thy sons, and their daughters go a whoring after their gods, and make thy sons go a whoring after their gods.
Ex 34:17 Thou shalt make thee no molten gods.
Lev 19:4 Turn ye not unto idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods: I am the LORD your God.
Nu 25:2 And they called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods: and the people did eat, and bowed down to their gods.
Nu 33:4 For the Egyptians buried all their firstborn, which the LORD had smitten among them: upon their gods also the LORD executed judgments.
Deu 4:28 And there ye shall serve gods, the work of men's hands, wood and stone, which neither see, nor hear, nor eat, nor smell.
Deu 5:7 Thou shalt have none other gods, before me.
Deu 6:14 Ye shall not go afer other gods, of the gods of the people which are round about you;
Deu 7:4 For they will turn away thy son from following me, that they may serve other gods:
so will the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and destroy thee suddenly.
Deu 7:16 And thou shalt consume all the people which the LORD thy God shall deliver thee; thine eye shall have no pity upon them : neither shalt thou serve their gods; for that will be a snare unto thee.
Deu 7:25 The graven images of their gods shall ye burn with fire: thou shalt not desire the silver of gold that is on them, nor take it unto thee, lest thou be snared therein: for it is an abomination to the LORD thy God.
Deu10:17 For the LORD your God is God of gods, and LORD of lords, a great God, a mighty, and a terrible, which regardeth not persons, nor taketh reward:
Deu11:16 Take heed to yourselves, that your heart be not deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worhip them;
Deu 11:28 And a curse, if ye will not obey the commandments of the LORD your God, but turn aside out of the way which I command you this day, to go after other gods, which ye have not know.
Deu 12:2 Ye shall utterly destroy all places, wherein the nation which ye shall possess served their gods, upon the high mountains, and upon the hills, and under every green tree.
Deu 17:3 And hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, either the sun, or moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have not commanded;
Deu 18:20 But the prophet, which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name or other gods, even that prophet shall die..
Deu 30:17 But if thine hearth turn away, so that thou will not hear, but shalt be drawn away, and woship other gods, and serve them;
Deu 31:16 And the LORD said unto Moses, Behold, thou shalt sleep with thy fathers; and this people will rise up, and go a whoring after the gods of the stranger of the land, whither they go to be among them, and will forsake me, and break my covenant which I have made with them.
Deu 31:18 And I will surely hide my face in that day for all the evils which they shall have wrought in that they turn to other gods.
Deu31:20 For when I shall have brought them into the land which I sware unto their fathers, that floweth with milk and honey; and they shall have eaten and filled themselves, and waxen fat; then will they turn unto other gods, and serve them, and provoke me, and break my covenant.
Deu 32:17 They sacrificed unto devils, not to God; to gods whom they knew not, to new gods that came newly up, whom your fathers feared not.
Deu 32:37 And he shall say, Where are their gods, their rock in whom they trusted.
Deu 32:39 See now that I, even I, am he, and there is no god with me : I kill, and I make alive; I wound, and I heal: neither is there any that can deliver out of my hand.
Jos 23:7 That ye come not among these nations, these that remain among you; neither make mention of the name of their gods, nor cause to swear by them, neither serve them, now bow your-selves unto them:
Jos 23:16 When ye have transgressed the covenant of the LORD your God, which he commanded you, and have gone and served other gods, and bowed yourselves to them; then shall the anger of the LORD be kindled against you, and ye shall perish quickly from off the good land which he hath given unto you.
Jos 24:2 And Joshua said unto all the people, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, Your fathers dwelt on the other side of the flood in old time, even Te'-rah, the father of Abraham, and the father of Na'-chor: and they serve other gods.
Jos 24:14 Now therfore fear the LORD, and serve him in sincerity and in truth: and put away the gods which your fathers served on the other side of the flood, and in Egypt, and serve ye the LORD.
Jos 24:15 And if it seem evil unto you to serve the LORD, choose you this day whom ye will serve; whether the gods which your fathers served that were on the other side of the flood, or the gods of the Amorites, in whose land ye dwell: but as for me and my house, we will serve the LORD.
Jos 24:16 And the people answerd and said, God forbid that we should forsake the LORD, to serve other gods;
Jos 24:20 If ye forsake the LORD, and serve strange gods, then he will turn and do you hurt, and consume you, after that he hath done you good.
Jos 24:23 Now therefore put away, said he, the strange gods which are among you, and incline your heart unto the LORD God.of Israel.
Jud 2:3 Wherefore I also said, I will not drive them out from before you; but they shall be as thorns in your sides, and their gods shall be a snare unto you.
Jud 2:12 And they forsook the LORD God of their fathers, which brought them out of the land of Egypt, and followed other gods, of the gods of the people that were round about them, and bowed themsleve unto them, and provoke the LORD to anger.
Jud 2:17 And yet they would not hearken unto their judges, but they went a whoring after other gods, and bowed themselves unto them; they turned quickly out of the way which their fathers walked in, obeying the commandments of the LORD; but they did not so.
Jud 2:19 And it came to pass, when the judge was dead, that they returned, and corrupted themselves more than their fathers, in following other gods to serve them, and to bow down unto them; they ceased not from their own doings, nor from their stubborn way.
Jud 5:8 They close new gods; then was war in the gates: was there a shield or spear seen among forty thousand in Israel?
Jud 6:31 And Jo'-ash said unto all that stood against him, Will ye plead for Ba'-al? will ye save him? he that will plead for him, let him be put to death whilst it is yet morning: if he be a god, let him plead for himself, because one hath cast down his altar.
Jud 8:33 And it came to pass, as soon as Gideon was dead, that the children of Israel turned again, and went a whoring after Ba'-al-im, and make Ba'al-be'-rith their god.
Jud 9:27 And they went out into the fields, and gathered their vineyards, and trode the grapes, and make merry, and went into the house of their god, and did eat and drink, and cursed A-bim'-e-lech.
Jud 10:6 And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD, and served Ba'-al-im, and Ash'-ta-roth, and the gods of Syria, and the gods of Zi'-don, and the godsof Moab, and the gods of the children of Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines, and forsook the LORD, and served not him.
Jud 10:13 Yet ye have forsaken me, and served other gods: wherefore I will deliver you no more.
Jud 10:14 Go and cry unto the gods which ye have chosen; let them deliver you in the time of your tribulation.
Jud 10:16 And they put away the strange gods from among them, and served th LORD: and his soul was grieved for the misery of Israel.
Jud 11:24 Wilt not thou possess that which Che'-mosh thy god giveth thee to possess? So whomsoever the LORD our God shall drive out from before us, them will we possess.
Jud16:23 Then the lords of the Philistines gathered them together for to offer a great sacrifice unto Da'-gon their god, and to rejoice: for they said, Our god hath delivered Samson our enemy into our hand.
Jud 16:24 And when the people saw him, they praised their gods : for they said, Our god hath delivered into our hands our enemy, and the destroyer of our country, which slew many of us.
Jud 18:24 And he said, Ye have taken away my gods which I made, and the priest, and ye are gone away: and what have I more? an what is this that ye said unto me, what aileth thee?
Ru 1:15 And she said, Behold, thy sister in law is gone back unto her people, and unto her gods: return thou after thy sister in law.
1 Sa 5:7 And when the men of Ash'-dod saw that it was so, they said, The ark of the God of Israel shall not abide with us : for his hand is sore upon us, and upon Da'gon our god.
1 Sa 6:5 Wherefore ye shall make images of your emerods, and images of your mice that mar the land: and ye shall give glory unto the God of Israel : peradventure he will lighten his hand from off you, and from off your gods, once from off your land.
1 Sa 7:3 And Samuel spake unto all the house of Israel, saying, If ye do return unto the LORD with all your hearts, then put away the strange gods and Ash'-ta-roth from among you, and prepare your hearts unto the LORD, and serve him only: and he will deliver you out of the hand of the Philistines.
1 Sa 8:8 According to all the works which they have done since the day that I brought them up of Egypt even unto this day, wherewith they have forsaken me, and served other gods, so do they also unto thee.
1 Sa 17:43 And the Philistine said unto David, Am I a dog, that then comest to me with staves? And the Philistine cursed David by his gods.
1 Sa 26:19 Now therefore, I pray thee, let my lord the king hear the words of his servant. If the LORD have stirred thee up against me, let him accept an offering: but if they be the children of men, cursed be they before the LORD; for they have driven me out this day from abiding in the inheritance of the LORD, saying, Go, serve other gods.
1 Sa 28:13 And the king said unto her, Be not afraid: for what sawest thou? And the woman said unto Saul, I saw gods ascending out of the earth.
2 Sa 7:23 And what one nation in the earth is like thy people, even like Isreal, whom God went to redeem for a people to himself, and to make him a name, and to do for you great things and terrible, for thy land, before thy people which thou redeemedst to thee from Egypt, from the nations and their gods?
1 K 9:6 But if ye shall at all turn from following me, ye or your children, and will not keep my commandments and my statutes which I have set before you, but go and serve other gods, and worship them:
1 K 9:9 And they shall answer, Because they forsook the LORD their God, who brought forth their fathers out of the land of Egypt, and have taken hold upon other gods, and have worshipped them, and served them : therefore hath the LORD brought upon them all this evil.
1 K11:2 Of the nations concerning which the LORD said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall not go in to them, neither shall they come in unto you: for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods : Solomon clave unto these in love.
1 K 11:4 For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods : and his heart was not perfect with the LORD his God, as was the heart of David his father.
1 K 11:5 For Solomon went after Ash'-to-reth the goddess of the Zi-do'-ni-ans, and after Mil'-com, the abomination of the Ammonites.
1 K 11:8 And likewise did he for all his strange wives, which burnt incense and sacrificed unto their gods.
1 K 11:10 And had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods : but he kept not that which the LORD commanded.
1 K 11:33 Because that they have forsaken me, and have worshipped Ash'-to-reth the goddess of the Zi-do'-ni-ans, Che'-mosh the god of the Moabites, and Mil'-com the god of the children of Ammon, and have not walked in my ways, to do that which is right in mine eyes, and to keep statutes and my judments, as did David his father.
1 K 12:28 Whereupon the king took counsel, and made two calves of gold, and said unto them, It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem : behold thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.
1 K 14:9 But hast done evil above all that were before thee: for thou hast gone and made thee other gods, and molten images, to provoke me to anger, and hast cast me behind thy back:
1 K 18:24 And call ye on the name of your gods, and I will call on the name of the LORD: and the God that answereth by fire, let him be God. And all the people answered and said, it is well spoken.
1 K 18:25 And E-li'jah said unto the prophets of Ba'-al, Choose you one bullock for yourselves, and dress it first; for ye are many; and call on the name of your gods, but put no fire under.
1 K 18:27 And it came to pass at noon, that E-li'-jah mocked them, and said, cry aloud : for he is a god, either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is in journey, or peradventure he sleepeth, and must be awaked.
1 K 19:2 Then Jez'-e-bel sent a messenger unto E-li'-jah, saying, So let the gods do to me, and more also, if I make not thy life as the life of one of them by tomorrow about this time.
1 K 20:10 And Ben-ha'-dad sent unto him, and said, The gods do so unto me, and more also, if the dust of Sa-ma'-ri-a shall suffice for handfuls for all the people that follow me.
1 K20:23 And the servants of the king of Syria said unto him, Their gods are gods of the hills: therfore they were stronger than we; but let us fight against them in the plain, and surely we shall be stronger than they.
2 K 1:2 Aand A-ha-zi'-ah fell down through a lattice in his upper chamber that was in Sa-ma'-ri-a, and was sick : and he sent his messengers, and said unto them, Go, enquire of Ba'-al-ze'bub the god of Ekron whether I shall recover of this disease.
2 K 1:3 But the angel of the LORD said to E-li'-jah the Tish'-bite, Arise, go up to meet the messengers of the king of Sa-ma'-ri-a, and say unto them, Is it not because there is not a God in Israel, that ye go to enquire of Ba'-al-ze'-bub the god of Ekron?
2 K 1:6 And they said unto him, There come a man up to meet us, and said unto us, Go, turn again unto the king that sent you, and say unto him; Thus saith the LORD, Is it not because there is not a God in Israel, that thou sendest to enquire of Ba'-al-ze'-bub the god of Ekron? therefore thou shalt not come down from that bed on which thou art gone up, but shalt surely die.
2 K 1:16 And he said unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Forasmuch as thou hast sent messengers to enquire of Ba'-al-ze'-bub the god of Ekron, is it not because there is no God in Israel to enquire of his word? therefore thou shalt not come down off that bed on which thou art gone up, but shalt surely die.
2 K 5:17 And Na'-a-man said, shall there not then, I pray thee, be given to thy servant two mules' burden of earth? for thy servant will henceforth offer neither burnt offering nor sacrifice unto other gods, but unto the LORD.
2 K 17:7 For so it was, that the children of Israel had sinned against the LORD their God, which had brought them up out of the land of Egypt, from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and had feared other gods,
2 K17:29 Howbeit every nation made gods of their own, and put them in the houses of the high places which the Sa-mar'-i-tans had made, every nation in their cities wherein they dwelt.
2 K 17:31 And the A'-vites made Nib'-haz and Tartak, and the Se'-phar-vites burnt their children in fire to A-dram'-me-lech and A-nam'-me-lech, the godsof Se-phar-va'-im.
2 K 17:33 They feared the LORD, and served their own gods, after the manner of the nations whom they carried away from thence.
2 K 17:35 With whom the LORD had made a covenant, and charged them, saying, Ye shall not fear other gods, nor bow yourselves to them, nor serve them, nor sacrifice to them:
2 K17:37 And the statutes, and the ordinances, and the law, and the commandment, which he wrote for you, ye shall observe to do for evermore; and ye shall not fear other gods.
2 K 17:38 And the covenant that I have made with you ye shall not forget; neither shall ye fear other gods.
2 K 18:33 Hath any of the gods of the nations delivered at all his land out of the hand of the king of Assyria?
2 K 18:34 Where are the gods Ha'-math, and of Ar'-pad? where are the gods of Se-phar-va'-im, He'-na, and I'-vah? Have they delivered Sa-ma'-ri-a out of mine hand?
2K 18:35 Who are they among all the gods of the countries, that have delivered their country out of mine hand, that the LORD should deliver Jerusalem out of mine hand?
2 K 19:12 Have the gods of the nations delivered them which my fathers have destroyed; as Go'-zan, and Ha'-ran, and Re'-zeph, and the children of Eden which were in The-la'-sar?
2 K 19:18 And have cast their gods into the fire: for they were no gods, but the work of men's hands, wood and stone: therefore they have destroyed them.
2 K 19:37 And it came to pass, as he was worshipping in the house of Nis'-roch his god, that A-dram'-me-lech and Sha-re'-zer his sons smote him with the sword: and they escaped into the land of Ar-me'-ni-a. And E'-sar-had'-don his son reigned in his stead.
2 K 22:17 Because they have forsaken me, and have burned incense unto other gods, that they might provoke me to anger with all the works of their hands; therefore my wrath shall be kindled against this place, and shall not be quenched.
1 Ch 5:25 And they transgressed against the God of their fathers, and went a whoring after the gods of the people of the land, whom God destroyed before them.
1 Ch 10:10 And they put his armour in the house of their gods, and fastenend his head in the temple of Da'-gon.
1 Ch 14:12 And when they had left their gods there, David gave a commandment, and they were burned with fire.
1 Ch 16:25 For great is the LORD, and greatly to be praised: he also is to be feared above all gods.
1 Ch 16:26 For all the gods of the people are idols: but the LORD made the heavens.
2 Ch 2:5 And the house which I build is great : for great is our God above all gods.
2 Ch 7:19 But if ye turn away, and forsake my statues and my commandments, which I have set before you, and shall go and serve other gods, and worship them;
2 Ch 7:22 And it shall be answered, Because they forsook the LORD God of their fathers, which brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, and laid hold on other gods, and worshipped them, and served them: therefore hath he brought all this evil upon them.
2 Ch 13:8 And now ye think to withstand the kingdom of the LORD in the Hand of the sons of David; and ye be a great multitude, and there are with you golden calves, which Jer-o-bo'-am made you for gods.
2 Ch 13:9 Have ye not cast out the priests of the LORD, the sons of Aaron, and the Levites, and have made you priest after the manner of the nations of other lands? so that whosoever cometh to consecrate himself with a young bullock and seven rams, the same may be a priest of them that are no gods.
2 Ch 25:14 Now it came to pass, after that Am-a-zi'-ah was come from the slaughter of the Edomites, that he brought the gods of the children of Se'-ir, and set them up to be his gods, and bowed down himself before them, and burned incense unto them,
2 Ch 25:15 Wherefore the anger of the LORD was kindled against Am-a-zi'-ah, and he sent unto him a prophet, which said unto him, Why hast thou sought after the gods of the people, which could not deliver their own people out of thine hand?
2 Ch 25:20 But Am-a-zi'ah would not hear; for it came of God, that he might deliver them into the hand of their enemies, because they sought after the gods of Edom.
2 Ch 28:23 For he sacrificed unto the gods of Damascus, which smote him : and he said, Because the gods of the kings of Syria help them, therefore will I sacrifice to them, that they may help me, But they were the ruin of him, and of all Israel.
2 Ch 28:25 And in every several city of Judah made high places to burn incense unto other gods, and provoked to anger the LORD God of his father.
2 Ch 32:13 Know ye not what I and my fathers have done unto all the people of other lands? were the gods of the nations of those lands any ways able to deliver their lands out of mine hand?
2 Ch 32:17 He wrote also letters to rail on the LORD God of Israel, and to speak against him, saying, As the gods of the nations of other lands have not delivered their people out of mine hand, so shall not the God of Hez-e-ki'-ah deliver his people out mine hand.
2 Ch 32:19 And they spake against the God of Jerusalem, as against the gods of the people of the earth, which were the work of the hands of man.
2 Ch 32:21 And the LORD sent an angel, which cut off all the mighty men of valour, and the leaders and captains in the camp of the king of Assyria. So he returned with shame of face to his own land. And when he was come into the house of his god, they that came forth of his own bowels slew him there with the sword.
2 Ch 33:15 And he took away the strange gods, and the idol out of the house of the LORD, and all the altars that he had built in the mount of the house of the LORD, and in Jerusalem, and cast them out of the city.
2 Ch 34:25 Because they have forsaken me, and have burned incense unto other gods, that they might provoke me to anger with all the works of their hands; therefore my wrath shall be poured out upon this place, and shall not be quenched.
Ezr 1:7 Also Cyrus the king brought forth the vessels of the house of the LORD, which Neb-u-chad-nez'-zar had brought forth out of Jerusalem, and had put them in the house of his gods;
Ps 82:1 God standeth in the congregation of the mighty; he judgeth among the gods.
Ps 82:6 I have said, Ye are gods; and all of you are children of the most High.
Ps 86:8 Among the gods theree is none like unto thee, O LORD; neither are there any works like unto thy works.
Ps 95:3 For the LORD is a great God, and a great King above all gods.
Ps 96:4 For the LORD is great, and greatly to be praised: he is to be feared above all gods.
Ps 96:5 For all the gods of the nations are idols : but the LORD made the heavens.
Ps 97:7 Confounded be all they that serve graven images, that boast themselves of idols : worhip him, all ye gods.
Ps 97:9 For thou, LORD, art high above all the earth: thou art exalted far above all gods.
Ps 136:2 O give thanks unto the God of gods: for his mercy endureth for ever.Isa 21:9 And, behold, here cometh a chariot of men, with a couple of horseman. And be answered and said, Babylon is fallen, is fallen; and all the graven images of her gods he hath broken unto the ground.
Isa 36:18 Beware lest Hez-e-ki'-ah persuade you, saying, The LORD will deliver us. Hath any of the gods of the nations delivered his land out of the hand of the king of Assyria?
Isa 36:19 Where are the gods of Ha'-math and Ar-phad? Where are the gods of Seph-ar-va'-im? and have they delivered Sa-ma'-ri-a out of my hand
Isa 36:20 Who are they among all the gods of these lands, that have delivered their hand out of my hand, that the LORD should deliver Jerusalem out of my hand?
Isa 37:12 Have the gods of the nations delivered them which my fathers have destroyed, as Go'-zan, and Ha'-ran, and Re'zep, and the children of Eden which were in Telas'-sar?
Isa 37:19 And have cast their gods into the fire: for they were no gods, but the work of men's hands, wood and stone : therefore they have destroyed them.
Isa 37:38 Ant it came to pass, as he was worshipping in the house at Nis'-roch his god, that A-dram'-me-lech and Sha-re'-zer his sons smote him with the sword; and they escaped into the land of Ar-me'-ni-a: and E'-sar-had'-don his son reigned in his stead.
Isa 41:23 Shew the things that are to come hereafter, that we may known that ye are gods: yea, do good, or do evil, we may be dismayed, and behold it together.
Isa 42:17 They shall be turned back, they shall be greatly ashamed, that trust in graven images, that say to the molten images, Ye are our gods.
Jer 1:16 And I will utter my judgments against them touching all their wickedness, who have forsaken me, and have burned incense unto other gods, and worshipped the works of their own hands.
Jer 2:11 Hath a nation changed their gods, which are yet no gods? But my people have changed their glory for that which doth not profit.
Jer 2:28 But where are thy gods that thou hast made thee? let them arise, if they can save thee in the time of thy troubles: for accoding to the number of thy cities are thy gods, O Judah.
Jer 5:7 How shall I pardon thee for this? Thy children have forsaken me, and sworn by them that are no gods: when I had fed them to the full, they then committed adultery, and assembled themselves by troops in the harlots' houses.
Jer 5:19 And it shall come to pass, when ye shall say, wherefore doeth the LORD our God all these things unto us? then shalt thou answer them, Like as ye have forsaken me, and served strange gods in your land, so shall ye serve strangers in a land that is not yours.
Jer 7:6 If ye oppress not the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, and shed not innocent blood in the place, neither walk after other gods to your hurt:
Jer 7:18 The children gather wood, and the fathers kindle the fire, and the women knead their dough, to make cakes to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink offerings unto other gods, that they may provoke me to anger.
Jer 11:10 They and turned back to the iniquties of their forefathers, which refused to hear my words; and they went after other gods to serve them: the house of Israel and the house of Judah have broken my covenant which I made with their fathers.
Jer 11:12 Then shall the cities of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem go, and cry unto the gods unto whom they offer incense: but they shall not save them at all in the time of their trouble.
Jer 11:13 For according to the number of thy cities were thy gods, O Judah; and according to the number of the streets of Jerusalem have ye set up altars to that shameful thing, even altars to burn incense unto Ba'-al.
Jer 13:10 This evil people, which were refuse to hear my words, which walk in the imagination of their heart, and walk after other gods, to serve them, and to worship them, shall even be as this girdle, which is good for nothing.
Jer 16:11 Then shalt thou say unto them, Because your fathers have forsaken me, saith the LORD, and have walked after other gods and have served them, and have worshipped them, and have forsaken me , and have not kept my law;
Jer 16:13 Therfore will I cast you out of this land into a hand that ye know not, neither ye nor your fathers; and there shall ye serve other gods day and night; where I will not shew you favour.
Jer 16:20 Shall a man make gods unto himselve, and they are no gods?
Jer 19:4 Because they have forsaken me, and have estranged this place, and have burned incense in it unto other gods, whom neither they nor their fathers have known, nor the kings of Judah, and have filled this place with the blood of innocents;
Jer 19:13 And the houses of Jerusalem, and the houses of the kings of Judah, shall be defiled as the place of To'-phet, because of all the houses upon whose roofs lthey have burned incense unto all the host of heaven, and have poured out drink offerings unto other gods.
Jer 22:9 Then they shall answer, Because they have forsaken the covenant of the LORD their God, and worshipped other gods, and served them.
Jer 25:6 And go not after other gods to serve them, and to worship them, and provoke me not to anger with the works of your hands; and I will do you no hurt.
Jer 32:29 And the Chal-de'-ans, that fight against this city, shall come and set fire on this city, and burn it with the houses, upon whose roofs they have offered incense unto Ba'-al, and poured out drink offerings unto other gods, to provoke me to anger.
Jer 35:15 I have sent also unto you all my servants the prophets, rising up early and sending them, saying, Return ye now every man from his evil way, and amend your doings, and go not after other gods to serve them, and ye shall dwell in the land which I have given to you and your fathers: but ye have not inclined your ear, nor hearkened unto me.
Jer 43:12 And I will kindle a fire in the houses of the gods of Egypt; and he shall burn them, and carry them away captives: and he shall array himself with the land of Egypt , as a shepherd putteth on his garment; and he shall go forth from thence in peace.
Jer 43:13 He shall break also the images of Beth-she'-mesh, that is in the land of Egypt; and the houses of the gods of the Egyptians shall be burn with fire.
Jer 44:3 Because of their wickedness which they have committed to provoke me to anger, in that they went to burn incense, and to serve other gods, whom they knew not, neither they, ye, nor your fathers.
Jer 44:5 But they hearkend not, nor inclined their ear to turn from the wickedness, to burn no incense unto other god,
Jer 44:8 In that ye provoke me unto wrath with the works of your hands, burning incense unto other gods in the land of Egypt, whither ye be gone to dwell that ye might cut yourselves off, and that ye might be a curse and reproach among all the nations of the earth?
Jer 44:15 Then all the men which knew that their wives had burned incense unto other gods, and all the women that stood by, a great multitude, even all the people that dwelt in the land of Egypt, in Path'-ros, anwered Jeremiah, saying,
Jer 46:25 The LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, saith; Behold, I will punish the multidude of No, and Pharaoh, and Egypt, with their gods , and their kings; even Pharaoh, and all them that trust in him:
Jer 48:35 Moreover I will cause to cease in Moab, saith the LORD, him that offereth in the high places, and him that burneth incence to his gods.
Dan 1:2 And the LORD gave Je-hol'-a-kim king of Judah into his hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God: which he carried into the land of Shi'-nar to the house of his god; and he brought the vessels into the treasure house of his god.
Dan 11:8 And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods; wih their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north.
Hos 3:1 Then said the LORD unto me, Go yet, love a woman beloved of her friend, yet an adulteress, according to the love of the LORD toward the children of Israel, who look to other gods and love flagons of wine.
Hos 13:4 Yet I am the LORD thy God from the land of Egypt, and thou shalt know no god but me: for there is no saviour beside me.
Hos 14:3 Asshur shall not save us; we will not ride upon horses: neither will we say any more to the work of our hands, Ye are our gods: for in thee the fatherless findeth mercy.
Am 2:8 And they lay themselves down upon clothes laid to pledge by every altar, and they drink the wine of the condemned in the house of their god.
Am 5:26 But ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chi'-un your imaages, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves.
Jon 1:5 Then the mariners were afraid, and cried every man unto his god, and cast forth the wares that were in the ship into the sea, to lighten it of them. But Jonah was gone down into the sides of the ship; and he lay, and was fast asleep.
Mic 4:5 For all people will walk every one in the name of his god, and we will walk in the name of the LORD our God for ever and ever.
Nah 1:14 And the LORD hath given a commandment concerning thee, that no more of thy name be sown: out of the house of thy gods will I cut off the graven image and the molten image: I will make thy grave; for thou art vile.
Zep 2:11 The LORD will be terrible unto them: for he will famish all the gods of the earth; and men shall worship him, every one from his place, even all the isles of the heathen.
從上述原文用法, 可知Elohiym不只是God, 而且也是god和gods. 如果Elohiym是三位一的體的話, 那上述之外邦god和gods 是否也是三位一體?
除了God, god和 gods之外, Elohiym也譯為judges, judge和 angel. 那他們是否也是三位一體? 其原文(430)用法如下:
Ex 21:6 Then his master shall bring him unto the judges; he shall also bring him to the door, or unto the door post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an aul; and be shall serve him forever.
Ex 22:8 If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges, to see whether he have put his hand unto his neighbour's goods.
1 Sa 2:25 If one man sin against another, the judge shall judge him: but if a man sin against the LORD, who shall intreat for him? Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto the voice of their father, because the LORD would slay them.
Ps 8:5 For thou hast made him a little lower than angels and hast crowned him with glory and honour.
Mal 2:15 And did not he make one? Yet had he the residue of the spirit. And wherefore one? That he might seek a godly seed. Therefore take heed to your spirit, and let none deal treacherously against the wife of his youth.
考証Apostolic Bible Polygot, 舊約的神字(430), 新約以Strong號碼2316代之. 其解釋為God, a god和magistrate. 參閱希臘文之2316, 其意思如下:
聖經原文字典(浸宣出版社) : 神. 在新約中出現1304次, 在七十士譯本, 以此希臘文所表達的希伯來文的Strongs號碼為430, 433和426. 同一本字典解釋433為諸神之一.. 在和合本總共出現57次. 426字意為神, 神祇, 相當與433.
The Strongest Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of The Bible (Zondervan) : God, usually referring to the one true God; in a very few contexts it refers to a (pagan) god or goddes. The “son of God”as tittle of Jesus emphasizes his unique relationship to the Father. “The god of this age” refers to the devil.在KJV中譯為God/god 1309次, God's15次, gods 8次, godly6 次, Godward 2次.
聖經原文串珠註解(浸宣出版社) : 在新約的意思為神, 原文字義是神, 相當與舊約之0002, 1321和1723. 0002為神, 與strong號碼0430相同; 1321亦神, 與strong 號碼433相同. 1723也是神, 與strong 號碼0426相同.
Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary (Thomas Nelson Publisher) : 2316 was appropriated by Jews and retained by Christian to denote “the one true God.” In the Septuagint, 2316 translates (with fes exception) the Hebrew words Elohim and Jehovah, the former indicating His power and preminence, the latter His unoriginated, immutable, eternal and self-sustained exixtance.
The New Strong's Concise Dictionary of Bible Words: of uncertainly affixed; a deity, sepecially the supreme Divinity: figuretively a majistrate; by Hebrew, very, exceedingly, God, god, godly, godward.
Hebrew Greek Key Study Bible (NIV) :其號碼為2536. 其意思為God; (pagaan) god, Goddess. 此書又進一步解釋: God, Deity; (false) god; ruler, judge. In the New Testament used us The Triune God, corresponding to the hebrew tittle elohiym know as the tetratgranematan YHWH.
The Complete Word Study Dictionary: masculine noun. God. Originally used by the heathen, but in the New Testament as the name of the true God. The heathen thought the gods were makers and disposers (placers) of all things. The ancient Greeks used the word both in the singular and the plural. When they used the plural, they intimated their belief that elements had their own “disposer” or “placer”, e.g., the god of moneh called mammon (Matt 6:24; Luke 16:9,13). The heavens were the grand objects of divine worship throughout the heathen world as is apparent from the names attributed to the gods by the ancient greeks. The Scriptures also attest to this (Act7:42, 43; Deut 4:19; 17:3; 2Kgs. 17:16; 23:4,5; Job 31:26,27; Jer 8:2; 19:13; Zeph. 1:5).
如考證原文2316的用法, 可知除了God以外, 它也譯為god和gods. 茲將其原文譯法抄錄如下:
Joh 10:34 Jesus answered them, Is it not write in your law, I said, Ye are gods?
Joh 10:35 If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be broken;
Acts 7:40 Saying unto Aaron, Make us gods to go before us: for as for this Moses, which brought us out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him.
Acts 7:43 Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Mo'-loch, and the star of your god Rem'-phan, figures which ye made to worship them : and I will carry you away beyond Babylon.
Acts 12:22 And the people gave a shout, saying, Is is the voice of a god and not of a man.
Acts 19:26 Moreover ye see and hear, that not alone at Eph'-e-sus, but almost throughout all Asia, this Paul hath persuaded and turned away much people, saying that they be no gods, which are made with hands:
Acts 28:6 Howbeit they looked when he should have swollen, or fallen down dead suddenly: but after they had looked a great while, and saw no harm come to him, they changed their minds, and said that he was a god.
Gal 4:8 Howbeit then, when ye knew not God, ye did service unto them which by nature are no gods.
1 Ti 1:4 Neither give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which minister questions, rather than godly edifying which is in faith: so do.
3 Joh 6 which have borne witness of thy charity before the church: whom if thou bring forward on their journey after a godly sort, thou shalt do well:
結果還是一樣, 2316 譯為 God, god, gods 和godly. 'gods' 的複數是多位神, 而不是多位位格. 從其原文用法來看, Hebrew-Greek Key Study Bible (NIV) 所給于的定義, 即三位一體, 是沒有聖經根據的. 其理由如下:
第一, 他們必須假設gods (elohiym)為many 而非many gods.
第三, 他們必須假設many 的東西是位格.
這也就是說, 三位一體的理論完全建立在假設上. 只要其中一個假設不成立, 整個三位一體的理論就倒了.